A cadence is a chord progression of at least two chords that indicate the end of a phrase or a end of a melodic section.
There are two principals type of cadences: Finished Cadences and unfinished Cadences.
Finished Cadences: A phrase that ends with a finished cadence sounds like ending.
Unfinished Cadences: A phrase that ends with an unfinished cadence sounds like not ending.
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Differences between British and American terminologies
About cadences, there are differences between British and American terminologies:
|Authentic cadence||Perfect cadence|
|Perfect Authentic cadence||No British label for that concept|
|Imperfect authentic cadence||No British label for that concept|
|Half-cadence (semi-cadence)||Imperfect cadence|
|Plagal cadence||Plagal cadence|
|Deceptive cadence||Interrupted cadence|
A phrase that ends with a finished cadence sounds like ending. There are different kinds of finished cadences:
A perfect cadence is a cadence from V to I (dominant to tonic).
There are 2 kinds of authentic cadences: Perfect authentic cadence, imperfect authentic cadence:
Perfect authentic cadence
A perfect authentic cadence is a cadence from V to I (dominant to tonic) with two other necessary conditions: Chords are in root position and the upper voice ends on degree I.
Imperfect authentic cadence
An imperfect authentic cadence is a cadence from V to I (dominant to tonic) that fails to meet requirements of perfect authentic cadence (root position and I on upper voice)
Here are some reason of the failed requirements:
One of the chord is not in root position:
The upper note is not the first degree (I):
A plagal cadence is a cadence from IV to I (Subdominant to tonic).
A phrase that ends with an unfinished cadence sounds like not ending. There are different kinds of unfinished cadences:
Half cadence / Imperfect cadence
A half cadence () or an imperfect cadence () is a cadence ending on degree V, whether preceded by any other chord. This cadence sounds like incomplete or suspended, it is like a pause in the music.
Deceptive cadence / Interrupted cadence
A deceptive cadence () or interrupted cadence () is a cadence from V to VI. Normally after the degree V, we are expecting for the degree I but the degree VI make a feeling of interruption and suspension.
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