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Closely related keys

Definition of closely related keys

Any key will have 5 closely-related keys. A closely-related key is a key that differs from a given key by at most one sharp or one flat.


Closely related keys are the most commonly used for modulations.

How to find closely related keys?


There are 3 methods to find closely related keys of a given key:

#1 Subtracting and adding one accidental
#2 With the circle of fifths
#3 With scale degrees

Finding closely related keys by subtracting and adding one accidental

Here we will learn how to find closely related keys by subtracting and adding one accidental:

For this example, we will try to find all 5 closely related keys of B♭ Major

First of all you must find the key signature of B♭ Major, if you have read the article about key signature, you already know that B♭ Major has 2 flats as key signature.

B♭ Major scale:
B flat major scale

Step #1: Finding the key signature of B♭ Major:

closely related keys of B flat Major


Step #2: Subtracting and adding one accidental:

You can add and subtract one accidental or add a perfect fifth and subtract a perfect fifth, it is the same)
closely related keys of B flat Major


Step #3: Find the relative minor keys:

closely related keys of B flat Major

Conclusion:

Closely related keys of B♭ Major are:
* F Major
* E♭ Major
* D minor
* G minor
* C minor


Another example with C Major:

closely related keys of C Major

Closely related keys of C Major are:
* G Major
* F Major
* E minor
* A minor
* D minor

Finding closely related keys with the circle of fifths

You can find the closely related keys with the circle of fifths:

Example with B♭ Major:

closely related keys of B flat Major with the circle of fifths

Closely related keys of B flat Major are neighbors keys on circle of fifths.

Conclusion:

Closely related keys of B♭ Major are:
* F Major
* E♭ Major
* D minor
* G minor
* C minor

Finding closely related keys with scale degrees

You can find the closely related keys with scale degrees.

On a Major scale, some degrees of the scales refers to all closely related keys of the given key:

degree I: main Major key
degree II: closely related minor key
degree III: closely related minor key
degree IV: closely related Major key
degree V: closely related Major key
degree VI: closely related minor key

Example with C Major key

degree I: C (main Major key)
degree II: D (closely related minor key)
degree III: E (closely related minor key)
degree IV: F (closely related Major key)
degree V: G (closely related Major key)
degree VI: A (closely related minor key)

closely related keys of C Major key

Another example with F Major:

closely related keys of F Major key

Complete list of closely related keys


Closely related keys of C Major : F Major, G Major, D minor, A minor, E minor
Closely related keys of G Major : C Major, D Major, A minor, E minor, B minor
Closely related keys of D Major : G Major, A Major, E minor, B minor, F♯ minor
Closely related keys of A Major : D Major, E Major, B minor, F♯ minor, C♯ minor
Closely related keys of E Major : A Major, B Major, F♯ minor, C♯ minor, G♯ minor
Closely related keys of C♭ Major : G♭ Major, F♭ Major, E♭ minor, A♭ minor, D♭ minor
Closely related keys of B Major : E Major, F♯ Major, C♯ minor, G♯ minor, D♯ minor
Closely related keys of G♭ Major : D♭ Major, C♭ Major, B♭ minor, E♭ minor, A♭ minor
Closely related keys of F♯ Major : C♯ Major, B Major, A♯ minor, D♯ minor, G♯ minor
Closely related keys of D♭ Major : A♭ Major, G♭ Major, F minor, B♭ minor, E♭ minor
Closely related keys of C♯ Major : G♯ Major, F♯ Major, E♯ minor, A♯ minor, D♯ minor
Closely related keys of A♭ Major : E♭ Major, D♭ Major, C minor, F minor, B♭ minor
Closely related keys of E♭ Major : B♭ Major, A♭ Major, G minor, C minor, F minor
Closely related keys of B♭ Major : F Major, E♭ Major, D minor, G minor, C minor
Closely related keys of F Major : C Major, B♭ Major, G minor, D minor, A minor

Closely related keys of A minor : D minor, E minor, F Major, C Major, G Major
Closely related keys of E minor : A minor, B minor, C Major, G Major, D Major
Closely related keys of B minor : E minor, F♯ minor, G Major, D Major, A Major
Closely related keys of F♯ minor : B minor, C♯ minor, D Major, A Major, E Major
Closely related keys of C♯ minor : F♯ minor, G♯ minor, A Major, E Major, B Major
Closely related keys of G♯ minor : C♯ minor, D♯ minor, E Major, B Major, F♯ Major
Closely related keys of A♭ minor : E♭ minor, D♭ minor, G♭ Major, C♭ Major, F♭ Major
Closely related keys of D♯ minor : G♯ minor, A♯ minor, C♯ Major, F♯ Major, B Major
Closely related keys of E♭ minor : A♭ minor, B♭ minor, D♭ Major, G♭ Major, C♭ Major
Closely related keys of A♯ minor : D♯ minor, E♯ minor, F♯ Major, C♯ Major, G♯ Major
Closely related keys of B♭ minor : E♭ minor, F minor, A♭ Major, D♭ Major, G♭ Major
Closely related keys of F minor : B♭ minor, C minor, E♭ Major, A♭ Major, D♭ Major
Closely related keys of C minor : F minor, G minor, B♭ Major, E♭ Major, A♭ Major
Closely related keys of G minor : C minor, D minor, F Major, B♭ Major, E♭ Major
Closely related keys of D minor : G minor, A minor, C Major, F Major, B♭ Major


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